E- Democracy Resources

Please note that we are currently reorganising this site, so please excuse any untidiness.








Cabinet Office Consultation Website
British government example of on-line engagement.

Canadian Policy Research Networks
The CPRN´s mission is to create knowledge and lead public debate on social and economic issues important to the well-being of Canadians. The site contains a number of useful pdf files about Online engagement and new models of networked government.

Centre for Technology in Government
The Center for Technology in Government (CTG) works with government to develop information strategies that foster innovation and enhance the quality and coordination of public services.  The center conducts applied research and partnership projects on the policy, management, and technology issues surrounding information use in the public sector.

Constituents and Your Web Site - What Citizens Want to See on Congressional Web Sites
‘Instant electronic communication offers citizens new ways to reach their elected officials, and raises their expectations for quick and effective responses to their questions, needs, or concerns. Thus, the new opportunities provided by instant communication pose new challenges: How can Members of Congress use these new tools to most effectively serve both their constituents and themselves? The purpose of this Issue Brief is to help Members of Congress meet the new communication challenges of one of these powerful new electronic tools: the Congressional Web site.

Democracy Forum
This is an online public space provided by The Hansard Society for the debate of issues concerning parliamentary democracy in the UK.

Digital Governance
Digital Governance explores some of the Innovative Models that put electronic-forms of Governance into practice.  These generic models have a huge potential to change the political scenes, reshape democracy and transform the way citizens interact with the Government.  This web site provides description of these models and the various programmes based on these models, along with relevant electronic-governance case-studies, articles and publications, and upcoming events.

The Electronic Democracy European Network
This project has industry, academic and local government partners, and links to several long-term civic participation sites. There is a specific focus on public administration and urban planning.

Kalix, Sweden
In the spring of 2000, Votia Empowerment, also referred to as Votia, was founded as a company where the individual would be given greater opportunities to influence his or her daily lif. Today, Votia is one of the world's leading companies within the field of politics, democracy and new technology. As the only European representative, Votia was included on the PoliticsOnline list of the 25 principal actors that influence politics through the use of the Internet. The business concept of Votia is to carry out democracy projects in municipalities, local authorities, county councils, trade unions and other member-based organizations. The project's aim is to improve communication, mutual confidence, and loyalty between our client and its customers (member, employees and citizens) by increasing members' influence and participation in decision-making through dialogue, voting and other forms of democratic influence.

The Hansard Society E-democracy Program
The Hansard Society is an independent educational charity which brings together MPs, Peers, academics, journalists, parliamentary staff, corporate affairs managers  to promote effective parliamentary democracy. Their e-democracy program includes an online consultation project, the virtual MP's office, and useful publications, as well as the Democracy Forum.

National Assembly of Quebec
The Committee on Institutions has initiated a pilot project aimed to promote the democratic use of information and communications technology at the National Assembly of Quebec. The project makes it possible for the citizens of Quebec to participate in the work of the parliamentary committees through the Internet.

This is a UK government sponsored site for the 'public sector management web community.' It contains documents on best practice in community consultation.

Scottish Experiments
E-democracy Toolkit/E-Consultant
The e-democracy toolkit allows people to participate directly in the democratic process. From the links on this page names can be added to one of the petitions; comments to one of the consultations; and a demonstration of how an electronic election could work. E-consultant comprises four main components: inform, participate, feedback and evaluate. The aim is to support and facilitate best practice in on-line consultation.
Think-net (Health)
A discussion forum for the highlands, including Climate Change, National Parks and a new discussion on Health Services

Smart Communities
The smart communities site is an excellent Canadian resource on how to use the Internet for networking and building stronger communities with better services and inputs from citizens.

UKOnline – CitizenSpace
Provides an opportunity for citizens to be more involved in the democratic process. People can take part in government consultations and discuss views with other users. Elected representatives can be found as well as information on elections, how to vote; and how to make complaints about public services. Government policy-making can be contributed to through official consultations, and discussions with other users.


The Commonwealth Centre for Electronic Governance
A Canadian Government site, its aim is to assist the transition to electronic government (eGovernment) in the initial instance, and to electronic democracy (eDemocracy) in the long run; and promote good practice, enhance a sharing of learning experiences, dissemination of information and management of knowledge in electronic government (eGovernment) and electronic democracy (eDemocracy) amongst various human and institutional networks and communities of interest in the Commonwealth and beyond

E-government is a topic page of the Development Gateway, an interactive portal for information and knowledge sharing on sustainable development and poverty reduction. This internet site was launched by the World Bank and is one of the four main activities of the Develpment Gateway Foundation.

G8 GOL Democracy Resource Centre
Published in 1999, it includes contributions from around the world.
How nice that my 1996 paper is among the popular hits! My thesis updates that for one Australian organisation.

OECD Citizens as Partners Guide, Engaging Citizens in Policy Making w/ICTs Policy Brief
OECD work in this area reviews Member countries efforts to strengthen access to information, opportunities for consultation and encourage the active participation of citizens in shaping public policies


Australian Sites:

Active: stuff for social change
Includes links to seven active cities around Australia and three Indymedia sites in Australia.

Article - Australian eDemocracy? The potential for citizens and governments
by Dr Mary Griffiths, Monash University

Citizens' Action for Democracy
CAD facilitates the formation and work of Working Action Groups (WAGs) in local government regions. They are very active in Ipswich, Queensland, working for transparent, responsive and accountable government on issues including environmental protection and management and a 'bottom-up'  holistic and just system of care and community support for citizens with inabilities.

Community Builders
This NSW Government site is an interactive electronic clearing house for everyone involved in community level social, economic and environmental renewal including community leaders, community & government workers, volunteers, program managers, academics, policy makers, youth and seniors.

Computing Assistance Support and Education Inc
CASE was formed to assist Australian individuals and community organisations in making better use of information technology to accomplish their goals.

Electronic Democracy and Internet Voting
Multi Media Victoria has good resources on electronic democracy, as part of their extensive government online resource centre.

Government Online Resource Centre
The Victorian Government's repository of e-government resources.

My Connected Community
My Connected Community (mc2) ensures that community groups are provided with the support and tools needed to build an online community. mc2 provides training and online resources to enable community groups to: publish online, network with members, extend group membership and activities, communicate with other communities of interest, either locally or worldwide, establish a website. The key objective of mc2 is to rapidly stimulate the development of online communities of interest within Victoria

On Line Opinion
Graham Young, editor of this site describes it as:´a nonpartisan Australian publication which publishes opinion pieces from leading and/or eloquent Australians and others on social and political issues.  The aim of the publication is to provide a nonpartisan forum where people with expert knowledge can communicate that knowledge to a wider public interested in governance issues.  We try to foster the clash of ideas in the belief that our society has become too polarised and tribal and needs some public open spaces where all can contribute.´

The Purple Sage Project
This project represents a groundbreaking partnership between 6 Victorian organisations, who have acted from a shared recognition that many Victorians are deeply troubled about their state and its future.  These organisations came together to provide a voice for expression of community concern, and an avenue to do something about this concern.  Purple Sage aims to reinvigorate civic action, returning a sense of efficacy to ordinary Victorians.

Rattle the Cage
Rattle the cage is a unique service for Australian political, environmental and social activists.  On this site, hundreds of sample letters about current issues are to be found and letters from all viewpoints on any topic of current interest are also welcome.

Report: Use of the Internet as a Consultation Tool by Victorian Local Governments
by Jenny Kowalski.
This report determines how internet technologies are being used by local governments to aid community engagement, consultation and decision making processes.

Victoria – Have Your Say
Is a Pilot Program designed to explore the potential for online government consultation. Provides an online opportunity for public comment on important issues and lets you put your views directly to the government

Victorian Parliamentary E-Democracy Inquiry





Brent Council (UK)
Under their government links are sites on e-government and a modest collection of e-democracy sites, biased towards online voting and opinion polling.

Bristol, UK
Bristol City Council 
Use of "Bristol Matters" branding to provide a clear explanation of the democratic process. The site offers extensive online information on committee diaries, minutes and reports and also incorporates advanced search facilities and online consultation.

Camden, UK
(See Young Camden)
We are committed to creating open and accessible local government in Camden. Consultation is undertaken with an  open mind, fairly and without bias. We welcome participation from all sections of the community and we are committed to listening and learning from information your responses.

Lewisham, UK
(See Your Voice, Your say)
This is the place to let us know what you think about your council and its services, and to suggest improvements.

The Northfield.org Web Cafe is an online community, a set of discussion boards for hosting group conversations primarily (though not exclusively) among citizens in the Northfield area. It currently has boards within the Café titled Government, Nature & Environment, Education, and a catch-all BridgeSquare board.
w/Griff Wigley 

Waitakere eDemocracy Group (WeDG)
 is a new group in Waitakere City, New Zealand that is standing up for citizens taking charge of the new Information and Communiction Technologies (ICTs)

Wellington – Your Say
Wellington City Council site inviting citizens to contribute to policy and project decision making relies on the people of Wellington to help us make the right decisions on policy and projects by providing a table of documents open for consultation

Winona Online Democracy
This site highlights the possibility of the growth of e-democracy even in small areas which would normally seem unlikely places for cutting edge online citizen involvement. Winona Online Democracy is an opportunity to participate in an ongoing, lively e-mail discussion of local issues that are important to the community. It allows members to interact with other community members and leaders on important local issues.


Balanced E-Government The report can be downloaded in PDF-format http://www.begix.de/en/studie/download.html
The Bertelsmann Foundation has conducted an international study to identify criteria of success for outstanding eGovernment performance in local and governmental administration. The research is meant to provide, for one, a solid basis for a forward-looking definition of what constitutes "good eGovernment". The second objective of the study is to outline the elements of a strategy both for administrators and the private sector on how to put electronic service delivery and the promises of digital democracy into practise.

The Benton Foundation
The Benton Foundation works to realize the social benefits made possible by the public interest use of communications. Bridging the worlds of philanthropy public policy, and community action, Benton seeks to shape the emerging communications environment and to demonstrate the value of communications for solving social problems.

Berkman Centre for Internet and Society
The Berkman Center for Internet & Society is a research program founded to explore cyberspace, share in its study, and help pioneer its development.

Bowling together
Stephen Coleman and John Gøtze - have created this website to accompany our new publication, which is available here. They want to try and engage people, and perhaps try and build a community of some kind here.

Brian Martin´s Website
Dr. Brian Martin is an associate professor in Science, Technology and Society at the University of Wollongong.  Much of his research since the mid 1980s has been in three areas: power in science, social defence and information in a free society.
This web site has many interesting articles concerning technology and society. 
His book `Information Liberation´   analyses the corruptions of power in a range of crucial current areas in the information society, including mass media, intellectual property, surveillance, bureaucracies, defamation and research.

The California Voter Foundation
The California Voter Foundation is a non-profit non-partisan organisation dedicated to using new technologies to help citizens participate in public life. Their many projects include an archive of campaign promises, the Digital Sunshine awards to foster computerised disclosure, and an online voter's guide.

The Center for Democracy and Technology
The Center for Democracy and Technology works to promote democratic values and constitutional liberties in the digital age.

This site is not in operation yet, but its´ intentions are large:
'CivisNetwork * the citizens' information and activist network * is an Internet portal site that will provide comprehensive information and tools for citizen action in Europe. (Civis is the Latin word for citizen.)  CivisNetwork (CN) will be a one stop shop for all the news, information, tools, software and connections that citizens need to take action * as a citizen of Europe, their country and their local neighborhood.

Congressional Management Foundation
The Congressional Management Foundation is a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization dedicated to helping congressional offices improve their management practices.  This site is more about design than interactivity, but these are related.  Gives examples of good web sites and a long list of web design information.

The De Borda Institute aims to promote the use of inclusive voting procedures on all contentious questions of social choice. This applies specifically to decision-making, be it for the electorate in regional/national polls, for their elected representatives in councils and parliaments, for members of a local community group, for members of a company board, for members of a co-operative, and so on. The appropriate methodology is the Borda count or rather, its modernised form, the "Borda preferendum".

The Delaney Policy Group
The Delaney Policy Group (DPG) is an essential resource for businesses, associations, and government agencies looking to shape technology policy.  This site has a link to an interesting article,
How the Internet is reshaping the rules for policy campaigns´- (Sept 2000).

The Democracy Project
The Democracy Project aims to allow citizens to inform themselves, engage each other and political leaders, and help shape the public agenda.

Democracy Online Project
The mission of the Democracy Online Project is to promote the development of US online politics in a manner which upholds democratic values.

Democracy Watch
Democracy Watch is an independent, non-profit, non-partisan Canadian citizen advocacy
organization that works to empower Canadians in their roles as voters, citizens, taxpayers, consumers and shareholders. Their aim is democratic reform based on principles of access to full and timely information about government and business activities and a meaningful right to participate and be represented in Canada's political system.

Digital Divide Network
The DDN offers a range of information, tools and resources that help practitioners stay on top of digital divide developments. It also serves as a forum where practitioners can share their experiences with colleagues around the world.

Do-consult · Democracies Online - Consultations
Do-Consult is a peer-to-peer forum for those involved with government, parliamentary and civic online consultations and events. Its purpose is to encourage professional information exchange among practitioners and researchers on use the Internet in the public policy consultation, public hearings, and rulemaking processes. This includes online consultations and events sponsored by governments (from local councils to parliamentary committees to national departments) and those organized by civic (NGOs) and academic organizations. This is the place to ask questions, share lessons and insights, and distribute relevant announcements.

E The People
E The People, is a nonpartisan site working with over 400 online newspapers, television stations and Internet portals to bring government closer to the people.

Electronic Civil Disobedience
Has links to articles about hactivism and electronic activism.

Electronic Commons The panCanadian not for profit public space network that bridges digital divides and contributes to digital democracy by supporting civic engagement, community development and cultural content creation. Come and visit this vital place in virtual space. Watch for developments and subscribe to the NetiZen News

Elektronische Demokratie (German)
German perspective and analysis

FINS Information Age Library
Archive of the Federal Information News Syndicate (FINS).

Free Pint  "Helping 48,000 people use the Web for their work" Free Pint is a free email newsletter with tips on Internet searching and Web site reviews. Published twice a month, it has grown in popularity to encompass a large community of 48924 Internet researchers and business users around the world.

Generation Net engages young people in the political process, tapping the power of the Internet to democratically determine our own nonpartisan agenda, raise public awareness of pressing issues, and coordinate grassroots advocacy campaigns to generate national policy changes.

Global Knowledge Partnership
The Global Knowledge Partnership (GKP) is an evolving, informal partnership of public, private and not-for-profit organizations. Partner organizations are committed to sharing information, experiences and resources to promote broad access to, and effective use of, knowledge and information as tools of  sustainable, equitable development.

IBM Institute for Electronic Government
The Institute for Electronic Government, IBM Corporation (IEG), was founded in 1995 as a resource for public sector leaders worldwide in electronic government. The IEG focuses on issues including public policy as it relates to technology strategy and execution, economic development and education, online citizen and business services, and e-democracy. A collaborative network of related government and technology organizations, academics and other research institutions forms the backbone of the IEG.

The International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance
The International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA) exists to nurture, sustain and promote democracy around the world. Global in membership and scope, independent of specific national interests, and quick in its response, International IDEA is an intergovernmental organization with a unique mandate - to support the growth of genuine, sustainable democracy.

The Loka Institute
The Loka Institute is a nonprofit research and advocacy organization concerned with the social, political, and environmental repercussions of research, science and technology.

Markle Foundation
Emerging communications media and information technology create unprecedented opportunity to improve people's lives.  The Markle Foundation works to realize this potential and promotes the development of communications industries that address public needs.

Mindshare is a leading provider of Internet strategy and technology development for public affairs. They develop and implement innovative online campaigns designed to organize, educate, and engage citizens, opinion leaders, and policy makers towards meaningful off-line action.

Minnesota E-Democracy Project
Minnesota E-Democracy is a nonpartisan citizen-based organization whose mission is to improve participation in democracy in Minnesota through the use of information networks.

MoveOn helps busy people be effective citizens. MoveOn is committed to broadening participation to counter the influence of monied interests and partisan extremes.

OMB Watch
OMB Watch is a nonprofit research, educational and advocacy organisation that includes a focus on nonprofits and their use of technology. This comprehensive research-based report gives many tools and resources useful for nonprofits seeking to influence the policy process through technology.

Politics Online
This site describes itself as fundraising and Internet tools for politics. It is mostly US based, but has many links and up to date information about the use of new technologies in politics.

Policity.com is a collaborative, nonpartisan site dedicated to the development and discussion of "citizen-centred governance".  Policity offers opportunities to learn, share and work together online.  It has been designed for people to interact, test their ideas and become part of an international network.

Public Debate
Public debate utilises the unique features of the Internet to offer a new and better forum for democratic expression.  Public debate was created for the reader, to firstly determine the issues that the public are really interested in and secondly to have the public opinion heard.  Public Debate is about issues and unlike traditional media, the editor does not decide the relative importance of each issue. This is decided by the readers.

Public Telecommunications Service - White Paper
by Peter Levine and Rober Wachbroit

Public Strategies for the Online World.

Quorum is a public forum for a new democracy conversation.

Roadmap for E-government in the Developing World 
The Working Group on E-Government in the Developing World, for the  Pacific Council on International Policy, April 2002

This interactive site aims to build an electronic community of practice for people who are
practitioners in e-democracy, e-consultation and e-governance. It offers features such as reviews, forums, and an opportunity to add links and contact others with questions or views.

Speakout.com is an online opinion research company that allows you to tell it like it is.  They take the traditional market research focus group and political polls and put them online while inviting you to tell politicians, political parties, corporations, marketers and special interest groups how you feel and why.

Social Science Information Gateway

Start an Online Commons
This site promotes the development and sustainability of online civic participation and democracy efforts around the world through experience, outreach and education.

Stephen Clift's Home pages
Steven Clift is an online strategist focused on the use of the Internet in democracy, governance, and community. He seeks to fundamentally improve democracy and citizen participation through the use of the Internet.
E-Democracy E-Book The E-Democracy E-Book outlines Clift's knowledge of everything related to democracy and the Internet.

Webocracy (Web Technologies Supporting Direct Participation in Democratic Processes) This project aims to empower citizens with innovative communication, access and voting system supporting increased participation in democratic processes. This organisational objective is achieved through scientific objectives which are of technical and methodological nature. Technical objectives involve design and development of a Web-based system Webocrat

Web White & Blue is a nonpartisan consortium of 17 of the largest Internet sites and news organizations who have come together to highlight the potential of the Internet to expand citizen participation in our democracy.
Evaluation: the Web White and Blue Network 2000,
a report on the WebWhite and Blue project by Professor Arthur Lupia. Commissioned by the Markle Foundation




Free Software



Best Value
This document looks at consultation as part of Best Value.  A list of consultation method approaches is included which have been designed to be as comprehensive as possible.

Lots about online marketing and electronic commerce.

Democracy Square (in Swedish)

Electronic Civic Consultations
This guide describes how an electronic civic consultation could be organized. It shows that the instrument of electronic civic consultation has been set up from a specific opinion on the part that the Internet can play in renewing democracy and how the Internet will be used within the scope of interactive policy-making.

Jakob Nielsen´s Website
One of the most quoted sites on web design, includes many of his articles (from the Alterbox section) about the interaction of web design and PR and marketing.  A valuable resource.







This site, maintained by John Gotze, has many links to technical web development, and a section on community building online.

YouGov is about understanding, managing and engaging the expertise of stakeholders. Using online and offline panels, we have developed a unique methodology which provides complex opinion research ("deep opinion polling") and interactive stakeholder participation ("inter-stakeholder dialogue").....


Articles & Reports

An Information Commons for E-Learning: Designing a Digital Opportunity Investment Trust
by Thomas Kalil. New Amercial Foundation - Spectrum Working Paper Series, 27 pp, June 2002

Australian eDemocracy? the potential for citizens and governments
by Dr. Mary Griffiths - Monash University.

Building the E-Commons: a Project of the Democracy Collaborative
by Peter Levine, April 2002

The Bracks government inquiry into electronic democracy needs to balance innovation and equality carefully.
by Dr Peter Chen, Online Opinion, 15 April 2002

Can the Internet Rescue Democracy? Toward an On-line Commons
by Peter Levine, from Ronald Hayduk and and Kevin Mattson (eds.), Democracy's Moment: Reforming the American: Political System for the 21st Century (Lanham, MD, Rowman & Littlefield, 2002), pp. 121-137

The Cluetrain Manifesto
by Christopher Locke, Rick Levine, Doc Searls, David Weinberger.

Communications of the ACM (V.44, NO.1, JAN, 2001)
Communications of the ACM is the internationally acknowledged premier magazine of the computing field.  This particular issue contains ten articles dealing with e-democracy.
 ~Democracy in an IT-framed society: introduction.
 ~A strategic perspective of electronic democracy.
 ~Toward the European information society.
 ~Is online democracy in the EU for professionals only?
 ~Rating the impact of new technologies on democracy.
 ~CTs, bureaucracies, and the future of democracy.
 ~Should democracy online be quick, strong, or thin?
 ~Computer professionals and the next culture of democracy.
 ~Not-for-profits in the democratic polity.
 ~Webbing governance: global trends across national-level
   public agencies.

Computerization and Controversy
Written and edited by Rob Kling.
This critical anthology introduces some of the major social controversies about the computerization of society.

Cyberactivists at the Crossroads
An appraisal by Jim Ayson, on some cyberactivist movements that led to the ouster of Estrada.

Democratic Visions, Commercial Realities? The Corporate Domination of Cyberspace and the Prospects for Online Deliberation
Article by Lincoln Dahlberg, in Antepodium, April 2002.

Digital Promise
(US based) recommends the creation of a multibillion-dollar Digital Opportunity Investment Trust. They believe funding for the Trust should come from federal auctions of the publicly owned electromagnetic spectrum government. The Trust would serve as venture capital fund for nonprofit educational and public service institutions. It would be dedicated to innovation, experimentation, and research in utilizing new telecommunications technologies across the widest possible range of public purposes. As well as the Digital Promise Report, there are a number of background papers on the site.

Electronic Journal of Communication
One of the world's first five peer reviewed electronic journals.

Evaluation: the Web White and Blue Network 2000,
a report on the WebWhite and Blue project by Professor Arthur Lupia. Commissioned by the Markle Foundation

First Monday
First Monday is one of the first peer-reviewed journals on the Internet.  It expands the frontiers of academic publishing by combining the traditional values of peer review with publication on the World Wide Web.  First Monday publishes original articles about the Internet and the Global Information Infrastructure.

The Impact of Democratic Deficits on Electronic Media in Rural Development
Article by Robin Van Koert

The Impact of the Internet on Myanmar
This article written by Viola Krebs explores how the Internet has affected the flow of information between in and outside Myanmar (Burma). Krebs shows that there is a strong difference between the way information was presented before and after the introduction of the World Wide Web.

Invigorating an Online Civil Society
Article by Andy Williamson.

Journal of Information, Law and Technology
JILT is an established but innovative electronic law journal covering a range of topics relating to IT law and applications. It contains a diversity of materials including peer reviewed and non-refereed articles, commentaries, work in progress articles, book and IT reviews, and conference reports and papers, as well as information papers, news and UK and global conferences.

Non-Profit Organisations and the Internet Report by Martin Johnson
This article reports on a survey of potential donors to the Wesley Mission in Sydney Australia on issues relating to online donations. It found `credit card security´ and `privacy of provided information´ were key concerns for the 44 respondants.

On Digital Public Space and the Real Tragedy of the Commons
An excellent article by Heather Menzies that describes the enclosure of the digital commons, and what this means for those who have created a public sphere online.  She says the tragedy is twofold: in the commercial takeover of what should be a public resource, and in the self-fulfilling prophesy that tells us there are only selfish actions in cyberspace.

On-line Engagement - New Models and Implications for Government Departments
A roundtable report by Elisabeth Richard and a speech by Arthur Kroeger to the Canadian Newspapers Association.

Pew Report on Internet and American Life
October 2001
The Pew Internet & American Life Project  creates and funds original, academic-quality research that explores the impact of the Internet on children, families, communities, the work place, schools, health care and civic/political life. The Project aims to be an authoritative source for timely information on the Internet's growth and societal impact, through research that is scrupulously impartial. The basic work-product of the centre will be phone and online surveys; data-gathering efforts that will often involve classic shoe-leather reporting from government agencies, academics, and other experts; fly-on-the-wall observations of what people do when they are online; and other efforts that try to examine individual and group behaviour. The Project intends to release 15-20 pieces of research a year, varying in size, scope, and ambition.

Plugging in to Electronic Democracy
By Rebecca Jahn
A short introductory article about a US congressional experiences with the Internet.

Reinventing Democratic Culture in an Age of Electronic Networks
An article by David Bollier.
This memorandum examines the need for institutions to assume a much more assertive and creative role as the computer/telecom revolution proceeds.  A framework is proposed on how to proceed intelligently in such a fast-moving realm of peril and opportunity.

Saving the Information Commons: A Public Interest AGenda in Digital Media
David Bollier & Tim Watts, New America Foundation, 83 pp, May 2002

Report: Use of the Internet as a Consultation Tool by Victorian Local Governments
by Jenny Kowalski.
This report determines how internet technologies are being used by local governments to aid community engagement, consultation and decision making processes.

Whatever Happened to the Electronic Cottage?
by Langdon Winner
A good analysis of techno-society and its discontents, from one of the most lucid writers on the social impact of new technologies.  Anyone who has visited central California will recognise the pattern.

A Wired Agora: Minneapolis, Citizen Participation, the Internet and Squirrels
An article by Stephen Clift about the potential of the Internet to improve citizen participation in democracy. The second part of this article includes examples from the dynamic Minneapolis Issues Forum, a project of Minnesota E-Democracy.



Alexander, Cynthia J. & Pal, Leslie A. (1998) Digital Democracy : policy and politics in the wired world. Toronto ; New York : Oxford University  Press.

Bekkers, V.J.J.M. ed, Koops, Bert Jaap ed &  Neuwt, Siaat ed (1996) Emerging Electronic Highways : new challenges for politics and Law (Law and Electronic Commerce, 1). Kluwer Law International. This book considers  some of the possible political, public administrative, and legal consequences of the informatization of government, business, and private lives, and how fundamental principles of fairness can be adapted and applied to the new society being created bit by bit. In 14 papers from a conference at Tilberg University, the Netherlands, in December 1995 contributors discuss such aspects as administrative space, information and communication technologies and democracy, interactive multimedia and Dutch lessons from the private sector, the telecommunications infrastructure, contracting in an on-line marketplace, and cybertax.

Bellamy, Christine (1998) Governing in the information age. Buckingham : Open University Press.

Browning, Graeme (1996) Electronic Democracy : using the Internet to influence American politics.  Wilton, CT : Pemberton Press.

Davis, Richard (1999) The Web of politics : the Internet's impact on the American Political system. New York : Oxford University Press. Is the Internet destined to upset traditional political power in the United States? This book gives an emphatic "no." Author Richard Davis shows how current political players such as candidates, public officials, and the media are adapting to the Internet and assuring that this new medium benefits them in their struggle for power. In doing so he examines the current function of the Internet in democratic politics, i.e. educating citizens, conducting electoral campaigns, gauging public opinion, and achieving policy resolution, and the roles of current political actors in those functions. Ebo,Bosah (1998) Cyberghetto or cybertopia? : race, class and gender on the Internet.  Westport, Conn. : Praeger.

Ess, Charles ed (1996) Philosophical perspectives on computer-mediated communication.  Albany : State University of New York Press.
Green, Lelia ed, Guinery, Roger ed & O´Hara, Megan ed (1994) Framing technology : society, choice and change. St. Leonards, N.S.W. : Allen & Unwin

Grossman, Lawrence K. (1996) The Electronic Republic : Reshaping Democracy in the Information Age. New York, N.Y. : Viking.
This book analyses the effect of decades of electronic and technological advances on the nation´s democracy, focussing on whether the increasing ease of communication will lead to governent by the whims of popular opinion.

Ferdinand, Peter ed (2000) The internet, democracy, and democratization.  London ; Portland, OR : Frank Cass.

Hague, Barry N. ed  Loader, Brian D. ed (1999) Digital democracy : discourse and decision making in the Information Age.  London ; New York : Routledge.

Hill, Kevin A. & Hughes John E. (1998) Cyberpolitics : Citizen Activism in the age of the Internet (People, Passions and Power). Rowman & Littlefield.

Kamarck, Elaine Ciulla ed & Nye, Joseph S. ed (1999) Democracy.Com : Governance in a Networked World.  Hollis, NH ; Hollis Pub.

Lanham, Richard A. (1993) The electronic word : democracy, technology and the arts. University of Chicago Press.
This highly acclaimed collection of Richard Lanham's witty, provocative, and engaging essays surveys the effects of electronic text on the arts and letters. Lanham explores how electronic text fulfills the expressive agenda of twentieth-century visual art and music, revolutionizes the curriculum, democratizes the instruments of art, and poses anew the cultural accountability of humanism itself.

Marcus, George E. ed (1996) Connected : engagements with media.  Chocago : University Press.

Margolis, Michael & Resnick, David (2000) Politics as usual : the cyberspace "revolution".  Thousand Oaks : Sage Publications.

Morris, Dick (1999) Vote.com : how Big-Money Lobbyists and the Media are Losing Their Influence, and the Internet is Giving Power Back to the People.  Los Angeles, CA. : Renaissance Books ; [New York] : Distributed by St. Martin´s Press.

Robbins, Bruce ed (1993) The Phantom public sphere.  Minneapolis : University of Minnesota Press.

Slayden, David ed & Whillock, Rita Kirk ed (1999) Soundbite Culture : the death of discourse in a wired world.  Thousand Oaks, California : Sage Publications.

Toulouse, Chris ed & Luke, Timothy W. ed (1998) The politics of cyberspace : a new political science reader. New York : Routledge.
The Politics of Cyberspace provides an overview of the impact of the world wide web on the political process. Chris Toulouse organizes the articles according to their theoretical approach--those who take up Habermas's concern with civil society and those who take up the postmodern critique of popular culture. The book covers key issues such as the potential for electronic democracy, the use of the web by mainstream political parties, challenges to the First Amendment, inequalities of access, and new understanding of gender. It also calls for progressive intellectuals to embrace the Internet in their political struggles.

Tsagarousianou, Roza ed, Tambini, Damian ed & Bryan, Cathy ed (1998) Cyberdemocracy : Technology, Cities and Civic Networks.  London ; New York : Routledge. Cyberdemocracy is a study of the potential for "electronic democracy" through the examination of case studies in US and European cities and civic projects. It aims to strike a balance between enthusiastic and dismissive approaches to "electronic democracy." The authors consider the impactof new technology with regard to the history of broadcasting and communications technology--in particular, the ways in which the principles and requirements of public service and universal access will, or will not be maintained.

Valovic, Thomas (2000) Digital Mythologies : the hidden complexities of the Internet.  New Brunswick, N.J. : Rutgers University Press.

Williams, Frederick ed & Pavlik, John W. ed (1994) The people´s right to know : media, democracy and the information highway. Hillside, N.J. : Erlbaum.


G. Scott Aiken´s Bibliography
Aiken´s thesis `American Democracy and Computer Mediated Communication : A Study in Minnesota´, provides the source of this bibliography.

Suzanne Bertin
 (1997). Electronic Democracy - An Annotated Bibliography. [cited 12/2/98] URL: http://home.vicnet.net.au/~victorp/vp.htm.

Scott London´s Bibliography
This list of articles, books, transcripts, electronic files, etc., was originally compiled for a background study London did for the Kettering Foundation in February 1993 on the democratic potential of the new communications technologies.   A few titles have since been added to the list.  The bibliography is divided into six sections.

Other Relevant Writers on Technology and Society:

Philip Agre
Agre is  an associate professor of information studies at the University of California, Los Angeles.  His home page has links to his recent publications, drafts he is working on and other items of interest.

G. Scott Aiken
 Aikens specializes in education and public affairs content applications in the age of broadband.  He has been deeply involved with developing and researching uses of the Internet in politics, policy and society since 1994, when in Minnesota he  helped configure the first interactive political web site.

Benjamin Barber
Benjamin R. Barber is the Walt Whitman Professor of Science and directs the Walt Whitman Center for the Culture and Politics of Democracy.  Dr. Barber brings an abiding concern for democracy and citizenship to issues of politics, culture and education in America and abroad.

Andrew Feenberg
Andrew Feenberg is professor of Philosophy at San Diego State University.  He is noted for his  work on Critical Theory and philosophy of technology.  Dr. Feenberg has also written extensively on computer mediated communications. He is recognized as an early innovator in the field of online distance learning, a field he helped to create in 1981.

Mailing Lists and News Groups:

Stephen Clift´s `DO-WIRE´
DO-WIRE is an international mailing-list useful for keeping up-to-date on e-democracy iniatives.

Democr@cy Forum
The purpose of democracy forum is for discussion, debate, announcements, proposals and other information about the role of new information technology and communication media in democracy and other related topics which may not primarily address communication media.

Is a Europe-wide organisation dedicated to encouraging eGovernment innovation in Europe. The Forum for European e-Public Services, "e-Forum" for short, is a new, not-for-profit, association aimed specifically at bringing together all interested parties active in the field of electronic government in Europe, both from public and private sectors.

E-Government Bulletin
Is an email service covering electronic public services, 'teledemocracy' and the information society in the UK and worldwide. The Bulletin is a free, independent publication, aimed at everyone in government, local government, the social sector and their private sector partners.

Government Online Discussion List (NOIE)
People responsible for Government Online matters in departments and agencies have indicated that they would like to communicate more easily with people in other organisations with the same responsibilities. To assist with this communication, NOIE have developed a listserv discussion group specifically for Government Online contacts.

The European Commission maintains a mailing list for the discussion of electronic democracy.  The purpose of this discussion list is to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas on the very important topic of electronic democracy.  We would like to hear information on electronic democracy project or initiatives planned or underway in this area, positive or even negative experiences gained as a result of these projects, views on issues that should be taken into consideration in the design and implementation of such applications or any relevant information.

The Weekly PokiTicker
Hosted by
PoliticsOnline, is a weekly summary of the news stories from across the country and around the world involving the Internet in politics. The Weekly PoliTicker is delivered directly to your email box every Friday


Other Resources

Communications-Related Headlines
Communications-Related Headlines is a free daily online news service provided by the Benton Foundation. This service will keep you up to date on important industry developments, policy issues, and other pertinent communications-related news events.

The Filter
Published by the Berkman Center for Internet & Society, The Filter newsletter gives you a unique take on today's most pressing public interest–oriented Internet issues through the eyes of leading experts, scholars, and researchers. In our monthly email newsletter (mirrored on our website), It features reports from their team of correspondents, and interviews with those involved in the evolution of the Net in politics, law and policy, culture and media. It also features letters and essays from readers.

UNESCO - Observatory of the Information Society - weekly newsletter
Weekly press review of news, briefs & documents.



Digital Promise
A proposal to establish a major educational trust fund that will help transform education, training and lifelong learning to meet the needs of the nation's new knowledge-based economy. The educational trust fund (we call it the Digital Opportunity Investment Trust, or "DO IT")............

E-Moderators Online Course from UK Hansard Society - Starts September 2002

Information Technology and Society
Dr R Newman is a lecturer at The School of Management at Queens University Belfast. His research interests include electronic democracy, including e-consultation
and on-line preferenda.

Virginia Tech in Blacksburg, Virginia,
offers an online course in electronic democracy as part of a Master's Degree political science


Community Informatics/Community Networking Research
Montreal, Canada, Oct. 8 , 2002
This is in conjunction with the World Forum on Community Networks (Oct.7- 12)
This is a follow-on to a successful series of research panels organized in conjunction with the Global Congress of Community Networks held in Buenos Aires, Argentina,
http://globalcn2001.org December 2001.


The following are an excerpt from Dr Geiselhart's Phd thesis bibliography, with an emphasis on items that deal with the role of technology in society, and in supporting democratic processes wtihin organisations:-

Aikens, Scott. (1996). "A History of Minnesota Electronic Democracy 1994". Proceedings of INET '96. Annual Conference, Internet Society. Montreal. http://www.dar.cam.ac.uk/gsa1001/Paper2.html.

Aikens, Scott. (1996a). "The Democratization of Systems of Public Opinion Formation". Proceedings of International Symposium on Technology and Society. Technical Expertise and Public Decisions. Proceedings. Princeton University. Princeton, NJ. 

Aikens, Geoffrey S. (1997). American Democracy and Computer-Mediated Communication: A Case Study in Minnesota. PhD Thesis, Cambridge University.  [cited 29/10/98]

Barber, Benjamin R. (1998-1999). "Three Scenarios for the Future of Technology and Strong Democracy". Political Science Quarterly, 113(4), 573-589.

Beder, Sharon. (1994). "The Role of Technology in Sustainable Development". Technology and Society, 13(4), 14-19.

Beder, Sharon. (1997). Global Spin - The Corporate Assault on Environmentalism. Scribe Publications: MBeniger, James R. (1986). The Control Revolution - Technological and Economic Origins of the Information Society. Harvard Univeristy Press: Cambridge.

Beniger, James R. (1986). The Control Revolution - Technological and Economic Origins of the Information Society. Harvard Univeristy Press: Cambridge.

Berleur, Jacques. (1995). "Self-Regulation and Democracy in the Cybercommunity: What Limits". Proceedings of the 4th National Computer Ethics Conference. Washington D.C. April 27-28.

Betten, Lammy. (February 1998). "The Democratic Deficit of Participatory Democracy in Community Social Policy". European Law Review, 23, 20-36.

Bijker, Wiebe E., & Law, John. (editors) (1992). Shaping Technology/Building Society. The MIT Press: Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England.

Birdsall, William F. (1996). "The Internet and the Ideology of Information Technology". Internet Society Conference: Transforming Society Now. Montreal. June 1996.

Birrer, Frans. (1997). "The Global Information Society and the Implications of Self-Organisation". Proceedings of Culture and Democracy Revisited in the Global Information Society. Corfu. May 8-10.

Bjerknes, Gro, Ehn, Pelle, & Kyng, Morten. (editors) (1987). Computers and Democracy. Avebury: Aldershot.

Blumler, Jay G. (1997). "Origins of the Crisis of Communication for Citizenship". Political Communication, 14: 395-404.

Boddy, David, & Gunson, Nicky. (1996). Organizations in the Network Age. Routledge: London.

Branscomb, Anne Wells. (1994). Who Owns Information? Basic Books: New York.

Brown, David. (1998). Cybertrends - Chaos, Power and Accountability in the Information Age. Penguin: London.

Calabrese, Andrew, & Borchert, Mark. (1996). "Prospects for Electronic Democracy in the United States: Rethinking Communication and Social Policy". Media, Culture and Society, 18(2), 249-268.

Cheney, George, Mumby, Dennis, Stohl, Cynthia, & Harrison, Teresa M. (1998). "Communication and Organisational Democracy: Introduction". Electronic Journal of Communication, 8(1) [cited 8/9/98]

Cleaver, Harry. (1996). "The Zapatistas and the Electronic Fabric of Struggle". Internet Society Conference: Transforming Society Now. Montreal. June 1996.

Clement, Andrew. (1994). "Computing at work: Empowering Action by Low-level Users". Communications of the ACM, 37(1), 53-63.

Clift, Steven. (March/April 1998). "Democracy is Online". OnTheInternet (Journal of the Internet Society),  [cited 10/1/99]

Dahl, Robert A. (1989). Democracy and its Critics. Yale University Press: New Haven and London.

Dear, Michael. (1999). "Telecommunications, Gangster Nations and the Crisis of Representative Democracy: An Editorial Comment". Political Geography, 18, 81-83.

Doheny-Farina, Stephen. (1996). The Wired Neighborhood. Yale University Press: New Haven and London.

Fang, Nien-Hsuan. (1995). The Internet as a Public Sphere: A Habermasian Approach. PhD Thesis, State University of New York at Buffalo.

Feenberg, Andrew. (1991). Critical Theory of Technology. Oxford University Press: New York and Oxford.

Fiorilli, Leonard. Participatory Design: Designing Technology for Democracies. [cited 9/4/97] URL: http://www.albany.net/~fioril/pd.htm.

Gilbert, Catherine. (1996). "Information Technology for the Delivery of Useful Parliamentary Information". A Forum on Government Policy and Information Technology. Parliament House, NSW. Oct 3-5, 1996.

Gualtieri, Robert. (1998). Impact of the Emerging Information Society on the Policy Development Process and Democratic Quality. OECD Public Management Service:  [cited 4/3/1999]

Guidi, Leda. Bologna Civic Network Service: Telematics for Citizens, Businesses and the Third Sector, in Democracy and Government Online Services, Contributions From Public Administrations Around the World.   [cited 11/12/1998]

Haywood, Trevor. (1995). Info-Rich Info-Poor: Access and Exchange in the Global Information Society. Bowker-Saur: London.

Hearn, Greg, Mandeville, Tom, & Anthony, David. (1998). The Communication Superhighway - Social and Economic Change in the Digital Age. Allen Unwin: Sydney.

Heimler, Peter. (1996). "The Problem of Hierarchy in Government". International Symposium on Technology and Society 'Technical Expertise and Public Decisions'. Princeton, New Jersey. 21-22 June, 1996. IEEE Society.

Henman, Paul. (1996). Constructing Families and Disciplining Bodies: A Socio-technical Study of Computers, Policy and Governance in Australia's Department of Social Security. PhD Thesis, University of Queensland.

Henman, Paul. (1997). "Computer Technology- A Political Player in Social Policy Processes". Journal of Social Policy, 26(3), pre-publication copy.

Herman, Edward S, & McChesney, Robert W. (1997). The Global Media - The New Missionaries of Global Capitalism. Cassell: London and Washington.

Kiel, L. Douglas. (1994). Managing Chaos and Complexity in Government . Jossey-Bass: San Francisco.

Langham, Don. (1994). Preserving Democracy in Cyberspace: The Need for a New Literacy. Computer Mediated Communication Magazine. [cited 29/8/1997]

Lennie, June. (1996). "Creating a More Sustainable Future: An Alternative Feminist Framework of Citizenship and Participation". Culture and Citizenship Conference. Brisbane. September 30- October 2.

Lennie, June. (1998). "Giving Voice to Women and Silencing in an Email Discussion about Native Title: An Application of Feminist Deconstructive Ethnography". Refashioning sociology: Responses to a New World Order, Australian Sociological Association Conference. Queensland University of Technology. December 1998.

London, Scott. (1995). "Teledemocracy vs. Deliberative Democracy: A Comparative Look at Two Models of Public Talk". Journal of Interpersonal Computing and Technology, 3(2), 33-55.

Mander, Jerry. (1996). The Net Loss of the Computer Revolution . [cited 1/7/98]

Mantovani, Giuseppe. (1994). "Is Computer-Mediated Communication Intrinsically Apt to Enhance Democracy in Organizations?". Human Relations, 47(1), 45-62.

Margetts, Helen. (1996). "The Implications for Democracy of Computerisation in Government" pp. 70-84 in Reinventing Democracy,   Blackwell Publishers. Paul Hirst/Sunil Khilnani (editors), The Political Quarterly Publishing Co: Oxford and Cambridge.

McChesney, Robert. (Winter 1996). "The Internet and US Communication Policy-Making in Historical and Critical Perspective". Journal of Communication,  98-119.

Meeks, Brock. (1997). "Better Democracy Though Technology". Communications of the ACM, Vol 40(No 2), 75-78.

Moore, Nick. (1998). "Rights and Responsibilities in an Information Society". The Journal of Information, Law and Technology (JILT), 1 [cited 3/2/1999]

Nieuwenhuizen, John. (1997). Asleep at the Wheel - Australia on the Superhighway. ABC Books: Sydney.

Perin, Constance. (1991). "Electronic Social Fields in Bureaucracies". Communications of the ACM, 34(12), 75-82.

Reinecke, Ian. (1989). "Information as a Free Public Good" pp.  147-162 in  Australian Communications and the Public Sphere, Essays in Memory of Bill Bonney, Helen Wilson (editor), Macmillan: Sydney and Melbourne.

Rosenberg, Richard S. (1997). The Social Impact of Computers. 2nd edition. Academic Press: San Diego.

Schaefer, Richard F. (1995). "National information infrastructure policy: a theoretical and normative approach". Internet Research: Electronic Networking Applications and Policy, 5(2), 4-13.

Schartum, D. W. (1998). "Access to Government-Held Information: Challenges and Possibilities". The Journal of Information, Law and Technology (JILT), 1 [cited 3/2/1999] http://elj.warwick.ac.uk/jilt/infosoc/98_1scha/.

Schrage, Michael. (1998). "Technology, Silver Bullets and Big Lies". Educom Review, 33(1), 32-37.

Sclove, Richard E. (1995). Democracy and Technology. The Guilford Press: New York.

Shapiro, Andrew L. (1998). Is the Net Democratic? Yes -- and No. [cited 19/3/98]

Stauber, John, & Rampton, Sheldon. (1995). Toxic Sludge is Good for You! Lies, Damn Lies and the Public Relations Industry. Common Courage Press: Monroe, Maine.

Stevenson, John. (1996). "The Silencing of a Democratic Medium: Early Public Policy on Radio and the Regulation of the Internet". Internet Society Conference: Transforming Society Now. Montreal. June 1996.

Street, John. (1997). "Remote Control? Politics, Technology and 'Electronic Democracy'". European Journal of Communication, 12(1), 27-42.

Surman, Mark. (1996). "Historical Loops - Cable, the Internet and Dreams of Social Transformation". Internet Society Conference - Transforming Society Now. Montreal. June 1996.

Technorealism. [cited 13/3/1998]

Wang, Shouhong. (1997). "Impact of Information Technology on Organizations". Human Systems Management, 16, 83-90.

Wynne, Brian. (1996). "May the Sheep Safely Graze? A Reflexive View of the Expert-Lay Knowledge Divide" pp. 44-83 in Risk, Environment and Modernity - Towards a New Ecology, Scott Lash, Bronislaw Szerszynski, & Brian Wynne (editors), Sage: London.

Zimmerman, Andrew D. (1995). "Toward a More Democratic Ethic of Technological Governance". Science, Technology and Human Values, 20(1), 86-107.

Zuboff, Shoshana. (1988). In the Age of the Smart Machine - The Future of Work and Power. Heinemann Professional Publishing: Oxford.