Abdullah, Othman Y., Leng, Ang C., Valida, Abelardo C., & Norwawi, Norita. (1996). "A Profile of Malaysian Chief Executive Officers' Use of Information Technology to Support Decision Making". School of Information Technology, Universiti Utara Malaysia.

Action Research Electronic Reader. [cited 5/7/97] URL:

Active Sydney. [cited 23/1/99] URL:

Agre, Philip E. (1998). "Information Technology in the Political Process". Congressional Seminar on "Technology and Social Change"organised by the Consortium of Social Science Associations.

Aikens, Scott. (1996). "A History of Minnesota Electronic Democracy 1994". Proceedings of INET '96. Annual Conference, Internet Society. Montreal.

Aikens, Scott. (1996a). "The Democratization of Systems of Public Opinion Formation". Proceedings of International Symposium on Technology and Society. Technical Expertise and Public Decisions. Proceedings. Princeton University. Princeton, NJ.

Aikens, Geoffrey S. (1997). American Democracy and Computer-Mediated Communication: A Case Study in Minnesota. PhD Thesis, Cambridge University. [cited 29/10/98] URL:

Alavi, Maryam. (1993). "An Assessment of Electronic Meeting Systems in a Corporate Setting". Information and Management, 25, 175-182.

Allen, Peter. (April 1997). "Modelling the Coevolution of Communications and Socioeconomic Structure". Prometheus, 15(1), 83-100.

Andersen, Kim V. (1995). Implementation, Use and Implications of Economic Modelling. [cited 20/6/97] URL:

Anderson, Liane. Argyris and Schon's theory on congruence and learning. [cited May 1997] URL:

Andrew Feenberg's Home Page. [cited July 1998] URL:

Angst Am Arbeitsplatz Kostet 100 Miliarden. [cited 25/1/98] URL: http://www/

Arch, Andrew. (1996). "Building an Intranet: Theory and Practice". Proceedings of AUSWEB96. Jupiter's Casino, Gold Coast, Queensland. 7-9 July. URL:

Argyris, Chris. (May-June 1998). "Empowerment: The Emperor's New Clothes". Harvard Business Review, 98-105.

Attewell, Paul. (27/3/96). "The Productivity Paradox". The Australian, p. 25.

Aucoin, Peter. (1991). "The Accountability Paradox" pp. 26-27 in The Well-Performing Government Organization, James C. McDavid, & Brian D. Martin (editors), The Institute of Public Administration of Canada: Toronto.

Aungles, Stan. (editor) (1991). Information Technology in Australia - Transforming Organisational Structure and Culture. New South Wales University Press: Sydney.

Australia in the International Context. (1998). Management Summary Provided to the Researcher. PA Strategic Sourcing Survey.

Australian Commonwealth Government Entry Point. [cited 12/1/1999] URL:

Australia's Cultural Network. [cited 15/1/99] URL:

Balasubramanian, V. Organisational Learning and Information Systems. [cited 9/11/97] URL:

Barber, Benjamin R. (1998-1999). "Three Scenarios for the Future of Technology and Strong Democracy". Political Science Quarterly, 113(4), 573-589.

Barnes, Robert. (1/12/98). "A Catalogue of Troubles". The Canberra Times, p. 9.

Barnsley, Michael. (1998). Fractals. Public Lecture at the Australian National University

Barry, Tony. (1997). "The Link List on Network Policy". Proceedings of AUSWEB 97. Gold Coast, Queensland. URL:

Barry, Tony. Link List Archives. [cited 5/8/98] URL:

Beder, Sharon. (1994). "The Role of Technology in Sustainable Development". Technology and Society, 13(4), 14-19.

Beder, Sharon. (1997). Global Spin - The Corporate Assault on Environmentalism. Scribe Publications: Melbourne.

Bell, Stephen. (1997). "Globalisation, Neoliberalism, and the Transformation of the Australian State". Australian Journal of Political Science, 32(3), 345-367.

Beniger, James R. (1986). The Control Revolution - Technological and Economic Origins of the Information Society. Harvard Univeristy Press: Cambridge.

Benjamin, Robert, & Levinson, Eliot. (Summer 1993). "A Framework for Managing IT-Enabled Change". Sloan Management Review, 23-33.

Berleur, Jacques. (1995). "Self-Regulation and Democracy in the Cybercommunity: What Limits". Proceedings of the 4th National Computer Ethics Conference. Washington D.C. April 27-28.

Berman, Yitzhak, Eaglstein, A. S., & Phillips, David. (Spring 1995). "Policy Impact on Information Technology Programming in the Social Services". Knowledge and Policy: The International Journal of Knowledge Transfer and Utilization, 8(1), 23-32.

Bertin, Suzanne. (1997). Electronic Democracy - An Annotated Bibliography. [cited 12/2/98] URL:

Betten, Lammy. (February 1998). "The Democratic Deficit of Participatory Democracy in Community Social Policy". European Law Review, 23, 20-36.

Bijker, Wiebe E., & Law, John. (editors) (1992). Shaping Technology/Building Society. The MIT Press: Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England.

Birdsall, William F. (1996). "The Internet and the Ideology of Information Technology". Internet Society Conference: Transforming Society Now. Montreal. June 1996.

Birrer, Frans. (1997). "The Global Information Society and the Implications of Self-Organisation". Proceedings of Culture and Democracy Revisited in the Global Information Society. Corfu. May 8-10.

Bjerknes, Gro, Ehn, Pelle, & Kyng, Morten. (editors) (1987). Computers and Democracy. Avebury: Aldershot.

Blumler, Jay G. (1997). "Origins of the Crisis of Communication for Citizenship". Political Communication, 14: 395-404.

Boddy, David, & Gunson, Nicky. (1996). Organizations in the Network Age. Routledge: London.

Bogard, William. (1996). The Simulation of Surveillance - Hypercontrol in Telematic Societies. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

Bollier, David. Reinventing Democratic Culture in an Age of Electronic Networks. [cited March 3, 1997] URL:

Boudreau, John W., & Ramstad, Peter M. (Fall 1997). "Measuring Intellectual Capital: Learning from Financial History". Human Resource Management, 36(3), 343-356.

Branscomb, Anne Wells. (1994). Who Owns Information? Basic Books: New York.

Briggs, John, & Peat, F. David. (1989). Turbulent Mirror. Harper and Row: New York.

Briggs, John. (1992). Fractals. Touchstone: New York.

Bright, Stephen. (1995). The Challenge to Change. Report on Internal Communication at CSIRO: Catalyst Communication Consultants.

Broadbent, Marianne. (February 1997). "The Emerging Phenomenon of Knowledge Management". The Australian Library Journal, 46(1), 6-23.

Brown, David. (1998). Cybertrends - Chaos, Power and Accountability in the Information Age. Penguin: London.

Building a Better Public Service. (1993). MAB/MIAC (Management Advisory Board/Management Improvement Advisory Committee). AGPS: Canberra.

Bunn, David, & Ranald, Patricia. (1993). "The Employee Perspective" in Reforming the Public Service - lessons from recent experience, Patrick Weller, John Forster, & Glyn David (editors), MacMillan Education Australia: Nathan, Queensland.

Burchell, Gordon, Gordon, Colin, & Miller, Peter. (editors) (1991). The Foucault Effect. Harvester Wheatsheaf: London.

Burgess, Verona. (16/9/98). "EdNA Average Wins Distinction". The Canberra Times, p. 11.

Calabrese, Andrew, & Borchert, Mark. (1996). "Prospects for Electronic Democracy in the United States: Rethinking Communication and Social Policy". Media, Culture and Society, 18(2), 249-268.

Campbell, Roderick. (16/2/99). "Brains Behind 'Fraud' Exposed". The Canberra Times, p. 1.

Canberra Wired - A Draft Community Information Strategy for the ACT. (1996). ACT Department of Urban Services: Canberra.

Carey, Alex. (1995). Taking the Risk out of Democracy - Propaganda in the US and Australia. Edited by Andrew Lohrey. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

Cassidy, Frank. (5/3/99). "Pay Slip Leaves PS Staff Short Changed". The Canberra Times, p. 1.

Cassidy, Frank. (7/1/99). "Top Public Servant Opts for Early Exit". The Canberra Times, p. 2.

Caudle, Sharon L. (Fall 1997). "Performance Results: The Information Technology Factor". New Directions for Evaluation , 75, 63-78.

Cheney, George, Mumby, Dennis, Stohl, Cynthia, & Harrison, Teresa M. (1998). "Communication and Organisational Democracy: Introduction". Electronic Journal of Communication, 8(1) [cited 8/9/98] URL:

Chomsky, Noam. A Corporate Watch Interview With Noam Chomsky. [cited 15/5/98] URL:

Cirg-L: The List of the Commonwealth Internet Reference Group. [cited 3/10/98] URL:

Citizen Choice. (1997). [video]. Andersen Consulting.

Clarke, Roger. (1994). Information Infrastructure of the Networked Nation (Version 2.0). Australian National University: Canberra.

Clayton, Peter. (June 1996). "Email surveys: Old Problems with a New Delivery Medium". LASIE, 27(2), 30-39.

Clayton, Peter. (1997). Implementation of Organizational Innovation - Studies of Academic and Research Libraries. Academic Press: San Diego.

Cleaver, Harry. (1996). "The Zapatistas and the Electronic Fabric of Struggle". Internet Society Conference: Transforming Society Now. Montreal. June 1996.

Clement, Andrew. (1994). "Computing at work: Empowering Action by Low-level Users". Communications of the ACM, 37(1), 53-63.

Clients First: The Challenge for Government Information Technology. (1995). Report of the Minister for Finance Information Technology Review Group. Commonwealth Department of Finance: Canberra.

Clift, Steven. (March/April 1998). "Democracy is Online". OnTheInternet (Journal of the Internet Society), [cited 10/1/99] URL:

Commonwealth Budgeting, Reporting and Accounting (COBRA) Scoping Study. (1997). Department of Finance: Canberra.

Complexity, Chaos, Creativity & Networked Organizations. [cited 16/5/98] URL:

Considine, Mark. (1988). "The Corporate Management Framework as Administrative Science: A Critique". Australian Journal of Public Administration, 17(1), 4-18.

Considine, Mark. (1992). "Alternatives to Hierarchy: The Role and Performance of Lateral Structures Inside Our Bureaucracy". Australian Journal of Public Administration, 51(3), 309-320.

Considine, Mark. (1994). Public Policy: A Critical Approach. Macmillan: Melbourne.

Cook, John, & Hewison, Rupert. (1998). "Australia's Cultural Network and other Federal Government Online Cultural Initiatives ". Convergence: culture and policy in the digital age Australian Key Centre for Cultural and Media Policy. Brisbane. November 1998.

Culshaw, George. (1990). Workforce Participation and Work Design - a Guide for Management. Workplace Resource Centre: South Australia.

Currently Consulting On... [cited 12/5/99] URL:

Dahl, Robert A. (1989). Democracy and its Critics. Yale University Press: New Haven and London.

Dahlbom, Bo, & Mathiassen, Lars. (1996). "Power in Systems Design" pp. 903-906 in Computerization and Controversy, 2nd edition. Rob Kling (editor), Academic Press: San Diego.

Davis, Edward M., & Lansbury, Russell D. (1996). "Consultation and Employee Participation in Australian Workplaces: 1986-1995" pp. 1-21 in Managing Together - Consultation and Participation in the Workplace, Edward M. Davis, & Russell D. Lansbury (editors), Longman: Sydney.

Davis, G., Wanna, J., Warhurst, J., & Weller, P. (1988). Public Policy in Australia. Allen and Unwin: Sydney.

Dear, Michael. (1999). "Telecommunications, Gangster Nations and the Crisis of Representative Democracy: An Editorial Comment". Political Geography, 18, 81-83.

Democracies Online. [cited 8/1/99] URL:

Democracy and Government On-Line. [cited January 1999] URL:

Development of Database Systems in Budget Policy and Coordination. (1997). Department of Finance, internal document.

Dewan, Sanjeev, & Kraemer, Kenneth L. (1998). "International Dimensions of the Productivity Paradox". Communications of the ACM , 41(8), 56-62.

Discipline Research Strategy for Information Technology Working Draft for General Comment. Australian Research Council and the Department of Employment, Education, Training and Youth Affairs. [cited 18/8/97] URL:

Dixon, Tom. (1996). "Mary Parker Follett and Community". Australian Journal of Communication, 23(3), 68-83.

Doheny-Farina, Stephen. (1996). The Wired Neighborhood. Yale University Press: New Haven and London.

E-Conference on Governance and Public Services in the Information Age, Discussion on the Public-Admin-and-Management@Mailbase.Ac.Uk List During October 1998.

Education Network Australia. [cited 13/3/1999] URL:

Electronic Civil Disobedience. [cited October 1998] URL:

Emery, F. E., & Trist, E. L. (1965). "The Causal Texture of Organisational Environments". Human Relations, 18, 21-32.

Evaluation of CSIRO’s Management and Structure. (April 1995). Internal discussion paper.

Fang, Nien-Hsuan. (1995). The Internet as a Public Sphere: A Habermasian Approach. PhD Thesis, State University of New York at Buffalo.

Feenberg, Andrew. (1991). Critical Theory of Technology. Oxford University Press: New York and Oxford.

Fiorilli, Leonard. Participatory Design: Designing Technology for Democracies. [cited 9/4/97] URL:

Fletcher, Patricia D., & Foy, Deborah O. (1994). "Managing Information Systems in State and Local Government". Annual Review of Information Science and Technology (ARIST), 29, 243-27? (missing end of biblio).

Flew, Terry. (1997). "Citizenship, Participation and Media Policy Formation". The Public, 4(4), 87-102.

Flew, Terry. (1998). "Government, Citizenship and Cultural Policy: Expertise and Participation in Australian Media Policy". Cultural Policy, 4(2), 311-327.

Forward, R. (1974). Public Policy in Australia. Cheshire: Melbourne.

Foucault, Michel. (1991a). "Politics and the Study of Discourse" pp. 53-72 in The Foucault Effect, Gordon Burchell, Colin Gordon, & Peter Miller (editors), Harvester Wheatsheaf: London.

Foucault, Michel. (1991b). "Questions of Method" pp. 73-86 in The Foucault Effect, Gordon Burchell, Colin Gordon, & Peter Miller (editors), Harvester Wheatsheaf: London.

Foucault, Michel. (1991c). "Governmentality" pp. 86-104 in The Foucault Effect, Gordon Burchell, Colin Gordon, & Peter Miller (editors), Harvester Wheatsheaf: London.

Framework and Strategies for Information in the Commonwealth of Australia - Exposure Draft. (1995). Office of Government Information Technology. [cited 14/12/95] URL:

Frantzich, Stephen E. (1983). Computers in Congress - The Politics of Information. Sage: Beverly Hills.

Fulk, J, Steinfield, C, Schmitz, J, & Power, G. (1987). "A Social Information Processing Model of Media Use in Organisations". Communications Research, 14(5), 529-552.

Fulk, Janet, & Boyd, Brian. (1991). "Emerging Theories of Communication in Organizations". Journal of Management, 17(2), 407-446.

Fulk, Janet. (1993). "Social Construction of Communication Technology". Academy of Management Journal, 36(5), 921-950.

A Future of the Estimates. (1995). The Estimates Ad-Hoc Working Group, Future of Finance Group, Department of Finance, Canberra.

G8 Government On-Line. [cited 10/1/99] URL:

Gamble, Andrew. (1996). "The Limits of Democracy" pp. 117-131 in Reinventing Democracy, Blackwell Publishers. Paul Hirst, & Sunil Khilnani (editors), The Political Quarterly Publishing Co: Oxford and Cambridge.

Geiselhart, Karin, & Colman, Stephen. (1999). "Two Web-based Australian Experiments in Electronic Democracy". Proceedings of AUSWEB99, Ballina NSW.

Geiselhart, Karin. (1998). "Does democracy scale? How Globalisation Values Impact on Organisational Interactivity". Sci'98, 2nd World Multiconference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics. Orlando. July 12-16, 1998.

Geiselhart, Karin. (1998a). "The Role of Interactive Technologies in Democratic Policy Processes - A Case Study of a Sea Change in a Major Australian Government Department, Research in Progress Report". Internet Research: Electronic Networking Applications and Policy, 8(3), 272-275.

Geiselhart, Karin. (1998b). Spheres of Influence: A Model of Organisational Interactivity in a Globalised Context, Paper Prepared for Beyond Convergence, 12th Biennial Conference of the International Telecommunications Society, Stockholm, June 1998. [cited 15/1/99] URL:

Gilbert, Catherine. (1996). "Information Technology for the Delivery of Useful Parliamentary Information". A Forum on Government Policy and Information Technology. Parliament House, NSW. Oct 3-5, 1996.

Gleick, James. (1988). Chaos - Making a New Science. Sphere Books: London.

Gomez, Richard. (1997). "Information Society and Civil Society: Non-governmental Organizations and Computer-mediated Communication in Latin America" pp. 186-196 in An Ethical Global Information Society - Democracy and Culture Revisited, Jacques Berleur, & Diane Whitehouse (editors), Chapman and Hall: London.

Governance in Transition: Public Management Reforms in OECD Countries. Quoted in a Posting to Public-Admin-and-Management@Mailbase.Ac.Uk 11/5/1998. (1994). OECD: Paris.

Government.Direct: A Prospectus for the Electronic Delivery of Government Services (UK Green Paper). [cited 1996] URL:

Grace, Margaret, Lundin, Roy, and Daws, Leonie. (1996). Working and Networking: Women's Voices from Elsewhere. Queensland University of Technology Centre for Policy and Leadership Studies in Education: A report of the project: Queensland Rural Women's Use of Communication Technologies: Implications for Information and Referral Services and for Networking Organisations.

Greenbaum, Joan, & Kyng, Morten. (1991). Design at Work - Cooperative Design of Computer Systems. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Hillsdale, New Jersey.

Gregory, Robert B., & Hunter, B. (1995). The Macro Economy and the Growth of Ghettos and Urban Poverty in Australia. Discussion Paper No 325. Centre for Economic Policy Research, Australian National University: Canberra.

Gregory, Robert. (1997). "After the Reforms: Some Patterns of Attitudinal Change among Senior Public Servants in Canberra and Wellington". Australian Journal of Public Administration, 56(1), 82-99.

Grosser, Kerry. (1991). "Human Networks in Organizational Information Processing". Annual Review of Information Science and Technology (ARIST), 26, 349-402.

Grundner, Dr T. (1996). Final Letter to the Fourth World. [cited 5/9/1996] URL: gopher://
Gualtieri, Robert. (1998). Impact of the Emerging Information Society on the Policy Development Process and Democratic Quality. OECD Public Management Service: [cited 4/3/1999] URL:

Guidi, Leda. Bologna Civic Network Service: Telematics for Citizens, Businesses and the Third Sector, in Democracy and Government Online Services, Contributions From Public Administrations Around the World. [cited 11/12/1998] URL:

Habermas, Jurgen. (1 April 1992). "Citizenship and National Identity: Some Reflections on the Future of Europe". Praxis International , 12, 1-19.

Hactivism - Hacking + Political Activism Comes of Age in Net Era, CPSR-Global Digest 944 (From Wired Magazine, September 22, 1998).

Hagen, Ingunn. (1997). "Communicating to an Ideal Audience: News and the Notion of the 'Informed Citizen'". Political Communication, 14, 405-419.

Halligan, John, Macintosh, Ian, & Watson, Hugh. (1996). The Australian Public Service: The View From the Top. Coopers & Lybrand, University of Canberra.
Ham, Christopher, & Hill, Michael. (1993). The Policy Process in the Modern Capitalist State. 2nd edition. Wheatsheaf Books: Brighton.

Hamburger, Peter, & Power, John. (1991). "Pusey on the Canberra Bureaucracy: Two Perspectives". Australian Journal of Public Administration, 50(4), 569-571.

Hampson, Ian. (1991). "Information Technology at Work: Industrial Democracy and Technological Determinism" pp. 63-91 Information Technology in Australia - Transforming Organisational Structure and Culture, Stan Aungles (editor), University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

Hardy, Robert E., & Schwartz, Randy. (1996). The Self-Defeating Oganization. Harper Collins: Sydney.

Hart, Stuart L. (January-February 1997). "Beyond Greening: Strategies for a Sustainable World". Harvard Business Review, 67-76.

Hasan, Helen, & Hasan, Suzanne. (1997). "Computer-Based Performance Information for Executives in Local Government". Australian Journal of Public Administration, 56(3), 24-29.

Hauben, Michael, & Hauben, Ronda. (1997). Netizens - On the History and Impact of Usenet and the Internet. IEEE Computer Society Press: Los Alamitos, California.

Have Your Say to the Government! Message Posted to Working-Group@Democracy.Org.Uk, 12/12/1997. FOI White Paper Consultation. [cited January 1998] URL:

Haywood, Trevor. (1995). Info-Rich Info-Poor: Access and Exchange in the Global Information Society. Bowker-Saur: London.

Hearn, Greg, Mandeville, Tom, & Anthony, David. (1998). The Communication Superhighway - Social and Economic Change in the Digital Age. Allen Unwin: Sydney.

Heifetz. (1988). The Power of Public Ideas, Robert Reich (editor), Ballinger.

Heimler, Peter. (1996). "The Problem of Hierarchy in Government". International Symposium on Technology and Society 'Technical Expertise and Public Decisions'. Princeton, New Jersey. 21-22 June, 1996. IEEE Society.

Held, David. (1996). Models of Democracy . 2nd edition. Polity Press: Cambridge.

Henderson, Ian. (2-3/8/97 ). "Rich Leave Poor Further in Their Wake". The Australian, p. 8.

Henman, Paul. (1996). Constructing Families and Disciplining Bodies: A Socio-technical Study of Computers, Policy and Governance in Australia's Department of Social Security. PhD Thesis, University of Queensland.

Henman, Paul. (1997). "Computer Technology- A Political Player in Social Policy Processes". Journal of Social Policy, 26(3), pre-publication copy.

Herman, Edward S, & McChesney, Robert W. (1997). The Global Media - The New Missionaries of Global Capitalism. Cassell: London and Washington.

Hernon, Peter, & McClure, Charles R. (1993). "Electronic US Government Information: Policy Issues and Directions". Annual Review of Information Science and Technology (ARIST), 28, 45-? need page end, missing last of biblio.

Hiltz, Starr R., & Turoff, Murray. (1985). "Avoiding Information Overload". Communications of the ACM, 28(7), 680-689.

Hindess, Barry. (1996). Discourses of Power - From Hobbes to Foucault. Blackwell: Oxford.

Hirst, Paul, & Khilnani, Sunil. (editors) (1996). Reinventing Democracy. The Political Quarterly Publishing Co: Oxford and Cambridge.

How the Net Killed the MAI, Forwarded Message Posted to Link 6/5/1998, From an Article in The Globe and Mail.

Howard, Richard. (1997). How I "Escaped" From Amazon.Com. [cited 17/7/98] URL:

Huber, George. (February 1991). "Organisational Learning: The Contributing Processes and the Literatures". Organisational Science, 2(1), 88-115.

Industrial Democracy Plan. (1994). Department of Finance: Canberra.

Information Management Strategic Plan (draft) (1997). Department of Finance, Canberra.

Information Management and Technology Blueprint for NSW. [cited 13/1/99] URL:

Information Technology Strategic Plan 1995-1998. Department of Finance, Canberra.

Ives, David. (1994). "Next Steps in Public Management". Australian Journal of Public Administration, 53(3), 335-340.

Journal of Information, Law and Technology (JILT). (1998). Issue One. Special Feature: The Citizen in the Information Society/Legal Issues From the Perspective of the Citizen.

Kanter, Rosabeth M. (1977). Men and Women of the Corporation. Basic Books: New York.

Kanter, Rosabeth M. (1984). The Change Masters. Unwin Hyman Limited: London.

Kanter, Rosabeth M. (1989). When Giants Learn to Dance. Unwin Hyman Limited: London.

Kanter, Rosabeth M. (1995). World Class - Thriving Locally in the Global Economy. Simon and Schuster: New York.

Katzer, Jeffrey, & Fletcher, Patricia. (1992). "The Information Environment of Managers". Annual Review of Information Science and Technology (ARIST), 27, 227-263.

Keating, Michael. (1990). "Managing for Results in the Public Interest". Australian Journal of Public Administration, 49(4), 387-398.

Keen, Peter. (1981). "Information Systems and Organisational Change". Communications of the ACM, 24(1), 24-33.

Kettl, Donald F. (1997). "The Global Revolution in Public Management: Driving Themes, Missing Links". Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 16(3), 446-462.

Kiel, L. Douglas. (1994). Managing Chaos and Complexity in Government . Jossey-Bass: San Francisco.

Kirkpatrick, David. (1996). "Groupware Goes Boom" pp. 903-906 in Computerization and Controversy, 2nd edition. Rob Kling (Editor), Academic Press: San Diego.

Kitay, Jim, Lansbury, Russell D., & (editors). (1997). Changing Employment Relations in Australia. Oxford University Press Australia: Melbourne.

Klein, Hans. (1996). "Public Access Television and Democratic Empowerment: Lessons for the Internet". Internet Society Conference: Transforming Society Now. Montreal. June 1996.

Kuhn, Thomas S. (1962). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. University of Chicago Press: Chicago.

Lamberton, Don. (April 1997). "The Knowledge-based Economy: A Sisyphus Model". Prometheus, 15(1), 73-82.

Langham, Don. (1994). Preserving Democracy in Cyberspace: The Need for a New Literacy. Computer Mediated Communication Magazine. [cited 29/8/1997] URL:

Lansbury, Russell D, & Spillane, Robert. (1983). Organisational Behaviour: the Australian Context. Longman Cheshire: Melbourne.

Laubacher, Robert J., Malone, Thomas W., & MIT Scenario Working Group. (1997). Two Scenarios for 21st Century Organizations. [cited 21/3/98] URL:

Lawyer warns that IT outsourcing will lead to increase in PS fraud. (Issue 252 - 2/9/97). Australian Public Eye - Independent Public Service News , p. 1.

Leedy, Paul, Newby, Timothy, & Ertmer, Peggy. (1997). Practical Research Planning and Design. Sixth edition. Prentice-Hall: Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

Lennie, June. (1996). "Creating a More Sustainable Future: An Alternative Feminist Framework of Citizenship and Participation". Culture and Citizenship Conference. Brisbane. September 30- October 2.

Lennie, June. (1998). "Giving Voice to Women and Silencing in an Email Discussion about Native Title: An Application of Feminist Deconstructive Ethnography". Refashioning sociology: Responses to a New World Order, Australian Sociological Association Conference. Queensland University of Technology. December 1998.

Leonard-Barton, Dorothy. (1990). "Implementing New Production Technologies: Exercises in Corporate Learning" pp. 160-187 in Managing Complexity in High Technology Organisations, Mary A. Von Glinow, & Susan A. Mohrman (editors), Oxford University Press: New York.

Lester, Richard K. (May/June 1998). "Companies That Listen to Their Inner Voices". Technology Review, 54-64.

Lewin, Roger. (1993). Complexity - Life at the Edge of Chaos. Phoenix: London.

Lloyd, Bruce. (May-June 1996). "The Paradox of Power". The Futurist, 30, 60.

Loka Institute. [cited May 1999] URL:

London, Scott. (1995). "Teledemocracy vs. Deliberative Democracy: A Comparative Look at Two Models of Public Talk". Journal of Interpersonal Computing and Technology, 3(2), 33-55.

London, Scott. (1994). Electronic Democracy An Annotated Bibliography. [cited 8/9/97] URL:

Lyon, David. (1988). The Information Society - Issues and Illusions. Polity Press: Cambridge.

Macdonald, Emma. (10/4/99). "White Men's Rage Alive in Politics: Scientist". The Canberra Times, p. 3.

Macpherson, M. Citizen Politics and the Renewal of Democracy . (1997). [cited 17/5/98] URL:

Macquarie Dictionary. (1981). Second revision. The Macquarie Library: Chatswood.

Magretta, Joan. (January-February 1997). "Growth Through Global Sustainability". Harvard Business Review, 79-88.

Malone, Thomas, & Rockart, John. (September 1991). "Computers, Networks and the Corporation". Scientific American, 92-99.

Management of Government Information As a National Strategic Resource. (1997). Report of the Information Management Steering Committee on Information Management in the Commonwealth Government. [cited 6/8/98] URL:

Managing the Information Resource. [Western Australia information management policy document] [cited 23/4/98] URL:

Mander, Jerry. (1978). Four Arguments for the Elimination of Television. Morrow: New York.

Mander, Jerry. (1996). The Net Loss of the Computer Revolution . [cited 1/7/98] URL:

Mantovani, Giuseppe. (1994). "Is Computer-Mediated Communication Intrinsically Apt to Enhance Democracy in Organizations?". Human Relations, 47(1), 45-62.

Mapping Finance. (1995). Future of Finance Group, Department of Finance, Canberra.

Margetts, Helen. (1996). "The Implications for Democracy of Computerisation in Government" pp. 70-84 in Reinventing Democracy, Blackwell Publishers. Paul Hirst/Sunil Khilnani (editors), The Political Quarterly Publishing Co: Oxford and Cambridge.

Markel, Mike. (1993). "An Ethical Imperative for Technical Communicators". IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 36(2), 81-86.

Martin, Brian, Callaghan, Sharon, Fox, Wells, Rosie, & Cawte, Mary. (1997). Challenging Bureaucratic Elites. Schweik Action: Wollongong.

Martin, Brian. (1995a). "Democracy Without Elections". Social Anarchism, 21, 18-51.

Martin, Hans P., & Schumann, Harald. (1997). The Global Trap - Globalisation and the Assault on Democracy and Prosperity. Patrick Camiller: translator. Pluto Press: Sydney.

Matheson, Craig. (1997). "The Premises of Decision-Making within the Australian Public Service". Australian Journal of Public Administration, 56(1), 13-24.

Maykut, Pamela, & Morehouse, Richard. (1994). Beginning Qualitative Research: A Philosophic and Practical Guide. The Palmer Press: London.

McChesney, Robert. (Winter 1996). "The Internet and US Communication Policy-Making in Historical and Critical Perspective". Journal of Communication, 98-119.

Meeks, Brock. (1997). "Better Democracy Though Technology". Communications of the ACM, Vol 40(No 2), 75-78.

Melhado, Evan M. (April 1998). "Economists, Public Provision and the Market: Changing Values in Policy Debate". Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 23(2), 215-263.

Mercer, David. (1998). "Science, Technology and Democracy on the STS Agenda: Review Article". Prometheus, 16(1), 81-91.

Minnesota E-Democracy. [cited 15/12/97] URL:

Mintzberg, Henry. (May-June 1996). "Managing Government - Governing Management". Harvard Business Review, 75-83.

Missingham, Roxanne. (1997). "Will You Still Need Me When I'm 64? Libraries and the Internet". Information Online and OnDisc 97 . Sydney. January 1997.

Moore, Nick. (1998). "Rights and Responsibilities in an Information Society". The Journal of Information, Law and Technology (JILT), 1 [cited 3/2/1999] URL:

Morehead, Alison, Steele, Mairi, Alexander, Michael, Stephen, Kerry, and Duffin, Linton. (1997). Changes at Work - The 1995 Australian Workplace Industrial Relations Survey. Department of Workplace Relations and Small Business: Canberra.

Morgan, Gareth. (1986). Images of Organisations . Sage: Beverly Hills.

Morrigan, Patricia. (1997). The Challenge of Managing Knowledgability: A Critical and Qualitative Study of the Learning Organisation in an Australian Public Sector Organisation. PhD Thesis, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology.

Mulgan, Richard. (1997). "The Processes of Public Accountability". Australian Journal of Public Administration, 56(1), 25-36.

Mulgan, Richard. (1997a). "Contracting Out and Accountability". Australian Journal of Public Administration, 56(4), 106-116.

Mumford, Enid. (1987). "Sociotechnical Systems Design: Evolving Theory and Practice" pp. 59-76 in Computers and Democracy, Gro Bjerknes, Pelle Ehn, & Morten Kyng (editors), Avebury: Aldershot.

A National Policy Framework for Structural Adjustment Within the New Commonwealth of Information. (1997). Information Policy Advisory Council: Canberra. [cited 9/9/97] URL:

National Women's Justice Coalition. [cited 6/3/1999] URL:

The Natural Life Cycle of a Mailing List. [cited 6/7/98] URL:

Negroponte, Nicholas. (1996). Being Digital. Hodder Headline Australia Pty Limited: Rydalmere, NSW.

Networking Australia's Future. (1994). Final Report of the Broadband Services Expert Group. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

Nieuwenhuizen, John. (1997). Asleep at the Wheel - Australia on the Superhighway. ABC Books: Sydney.

Noble, David. (1997). "Digital Diploma Mills: The Automation of Higher Education". Posted to Loka.fastnet 27/2/98.

NSW Senior Executive Service: Professionalism and Integrity. (1998). NSW Auditor General: Sydney.

Nunamaker, JF, Dennis, Alan, Valacich, Joseph, Vogel, Douglas, & George, Joey. (1991). "Electronic Meetings to Support Group Work". Communications of the ACM, 34(7), 40-61.

Ockham's Razor, Interview With John Nieuwenhuizen, ABC Radio National 26/4/1998.

O'Dea, Peter. (April 1998). "Fundamental Rights to Trade Union Membership Under Attack". CPSU ACT Branch Journal, 1.

Official Gateway to New Zealand Government. [cited 8/6/1999] URL:

O'Kane, Mary. (1993). "Engineering, Technology and Public Administration: Guest Editor's Introduction". Australian Journal of Public Administration, 52(1), 31-33.

Open Book Management. (31/5/1998) Sixty Minutes Television Program.

Orlikowski, Wanda J. (1996). "Learning from Notes: Organizational Issues in Groupware Implementation" pp. 903-906 in Computerization and Controversy, 2nd edition. Rob Kling (Editor), Academic Press: San Diego.

Osborne, Graeme, & Lewis, Glen. (1995). Communication Traditions in 20th Century Australia. Oxford University Press: Melbourne.

Outsourcing - Report of the Senate Committee on Finance and Public Administration. [cited 22/8/98] URL:

Palmquist, Ruth. (1992). "The Impact of Information Technology on the Individual". Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, 27, 3-41.

Parer, Dagmar. (1997). "Access to Government Information via the Internet: Work of the Information Management Steering Committee". Information Online and On Disc 97. Sydney. January 1997.

Pateman, Carole. (1970). Participation and Democratic Theory. Cambridge University Press: London.

People, Computers and Systems in the IT Branch. (1995). Department of Finance, Canberra.

Perin, Constance. (1991). "Electronic Social Fields in Bureaucracies ". Communications of the ACM, 34(12), 75-82.

Perugini, Valerie. (1996). "Anytime, Anywhere: The Social Impact of Emerging Communication Technology". IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 39(1), 4-15.

Peters, Guy. (1989). The Politics of Bureaucracy. Longman: New York.
Peters, Guy. (1996). Contradictions in Public Sector Reform: Reflections on Current Practice. Delivered at the ANU 50th Anniversary Public Lecture Series, The Australian National University, Canberra.

Petre, Daniel, & Harrington, David. (1996). The Clever Country? Australia's Digital Future. Lansdowne: Sydney.

Pinsonneault, Alain, & Rivard, Suzanne. (1998). "Information Technology and the Nature of Managerial Work: From the Productivity Paradox to the Icarus Paradox?". MIS Quarterly, September, 287-311.

Pollitt, Christopher, & Summa, Hilkka. (Jan-March 1997). "Trajectories of Reform: Public Management Change in Four Countries". Public Money and Management, 7-18.

Pollitt, Christopher. (Oct 7, 1997) Public Sector Change, Seminar at Department of Finance.

Preissl, Brigitte. (April 1997 ). "Information technology: A Critical Perspective on its Economic Effects". Prometheus, 15(1), 5-26.

Public Perceptions of CSIRO: a Staff Viewpoint. (April 1984). Internal document for Executive Committee.

Pusey, Michael. (1991). Economic Rationalism in Canberra - A Nation Building State Changes its Mind. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

Putting Australia on the New Silk Road: The Role of Trade Policy in Advancing Electronic Commerce. (1997). Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade: Canberra.

Queensland Communication and Information Policy Statement. [cited 12/1/99] URL:

Ramage, Roderick. (1996). "Mobbing in the Workplace". New Law Journal, [cited 25/1/1998] URL:

Ranald, P. (1998). "The Multilateral Agreement on Investment and the Role of the State". Evatt Papers: Globalisation, the Asian Crisis and the Future of Australian Jobs, Papers from the conference held at the Tom Mann Theatre, Surrey Hills, Sydney March 16-17. 5 (1-4), 85-88.

Reinecke, Ian. (1989). "Information as a Free Public Good" pp. 147-162 in Australian Communications and the Public Sphere, Essays in Memory of Bill Bonney, Helen Wilson (editor), Macmillan: Sydney and Melbourne.

Report of the Policy Advising Working Group. (1995). Future of Finance Group, Department of Finance, Canberra.

Rosenberg, Richard S. (1997). The Social Impact of Computers. 2nd edition. Academic Press: San Diego.

Rugman, Alan M., & Verbeke, Alain. (First Quarter 1998). "Multinational Enterprises and Public Policy". Journal of International Business Studies, 29(1), 115-136.

Rushkoff, Douglas. (1997). Children of Chaos. Flamingo: London.

Sachs, Hiram. (1995). "Computer Networks and the Formation of Public Opinion: An Ethnographic Study". Media, Culture & Society, 17, 81-99.

Sawer, Marian. (1996). "The Ethical State: Social Liberalism and Citizenship Traditions in Australia". Paper presented at the History Department, University of Western Australia.

Schaefer, Richard F. (1995). "National information infrastructure policy: a theoretical and normative approach". Internet Research: Electronic Networking Applications and Policy, 5(2), 4-13.

Schartum, D. W. (1998). "Access to Government-Held Information: Challenges and Possibilities". The Journal of Information, Law and Technology (JILT), 1 [cited 3/2/1999] URL:

Schrage, Michael. (1998). "Technology, Silver Bullets and Big Lies". Educom Review, 33(1), 32-37.

Schroder, Philippa. (2/10/97). "CEOs Face Greater Tension". Canberra Times, p. 11.

Schroder, Philippa. (1997a). "The Impact of the Coalition Government on the Public Service: Was Change Inevitable?". Australian Journal of Public Administration, 56(2), 12-17.

Schwartz, Howard S. (1990). Narcissistic Process and Corporate Decay - The Theory of the Organization Ideal. New York University Press: New York and London.

Sclove, Richard E. (1995). Democracy and Technology. The Guilford Press: New York.

Scott, Michelle, Diamond, Alexis, and Smith, Barry. (June 1997). Opportunities for Communities: Public Access to Networked Information Technology - A Report on the DSS Community Information Network Pilot. Strategic Research, Economic Analysis and Evaluation Branch, Department of Social Security: Canberra.

Self, Peter. (1993). Government by the Market? The Politics of Public Choice. The Macmillan Press: Houndsmills.

Semler, Ricardo. (1994). Maverick! Arrow: London.

Senge, Peter. (1992). The Fifth Discipline. Random House: Sydney.

Shapiro, Andrew L. (1998). Is the Net Democratic? Yes -- and No. [cited 19/3/98] URL:

Shaw, Robert. Internet Governance: Herding Cats and Sacred Cows
Version 1.1.
Based on talk given at INET 98, Geneva, Switzerland, July 22, 1998, posted to Link 14/10/98.

Shenk, David. (1997). Data Smog: Surviving the Information Glut. Abacus: London.

Simpson, Lyn, Daws, Leonie, Lennie, June, & Previte, Jo. (1998). "Communications and Connections: Lessons from a Collaborative Project Involving Rural Women and Interactive Communication Technologies". Communications Research Forum. Canberra. September 1998.

Sims, Henry P, Gioia, Dennis, & and associates. (1986). The Thinking Organization Dynamics of Organizational Social Cognition. Jossey-Bass : San Francisco and London.

Slade, Rob. A Critique of Democracy and Technology by Dick Sclove. [cited 5/12/1998] URL:

Spender, Dale. (1995). Nattering on the Net. Spinifex Press: Melbourne.

Spillane, Lynda. (1994). "Language and Values: Communication Styles of Australian Public Service Managers". Australian Journal of Public Administration, 53(1), 63-66.

Spradley, James. (1979). The Ethnographic Interview. Holt, Rinehart and Winston: New York.

Sproull, L, & Kiesler, S. (November 1986). "Reducing Social Context Cues: Electronic Mail in Organisational Communication". Management Science, 32(11), 1492-1512.

Sproull, Lee, & Kiesler, Sara. (1991). Connections: New Ways of Working in the Networked Organisation. MIT Press: Cambridge, Mass.

Spurgeon, Christine. (1997). The Digital Value of Communication. PhD Thesis, University of Technology, Sydney.

Stacey, Ralph D. (1996). Strategic Management and Organisational Dynamics. 2nd edition. Pitman: London.

Stauber, John, & Rampton, Sheldon. (1995). Toxic Sludge is Good for You! Lies, Damn Lies and the Public Relations Industry. Common Courage Press: Monroe, Maine.

Steinfield, Charles W. (1986). "Computer-Mediated Communication Systems". Annual Review of Information Science and Technology (ARIST), 21, 167-202.

Stevenson, John. (1996). "The Silencing of a Democratic Medium: Early Public Policy on Radio and the Regulation of the Internet". Internet Society Conference: Transforming Society Now. Montreal. June 1996.

Stewart, Jenny. (March 1, 1997). "Radical agenda will slay PS". Canberra Times, p. 9.

Strangman, Denis. (1996). "List Servers as a Discussion Forum Across the Public Sector". Internet: Superhighway or Goat Track, Seminar organised by the Institute of Public Administration Australia (ACT Branch). Canberra. 26 February 1996.

Street, John. (1997). "Remote Control? Politics, Technology and 'Electronic Democracy'". European Journal of Communication, 12(1), 27-42.

Stringer, Ernie. (1996). Action Research: A Handbook for Practitioners. Sage.

Surman, Mark. (1996). "Historical Loops - Cable, the Internet and Dreams of Social Transformation". Internet Society Conference - Transforming Society Now. Montreal. June 1996.

Talbott, Stephen. The Ultimate Worker, Netfuture Issue #50. Posted to Communet 4/6/1997.

Tannenbaum, Scott I. (Winter 1997). "Enhancing Continuous Learning: Diagnostic Findings from Multiple Companies". Human Resource Management, 36(4), 437-452.

Tapscott, Don. (1996). The Digital Economy. McGraw-Hill: New York.

Taylor, Mike. (17/2/1999). "DOFA Review in Wake of Alleged $8m Fraud". The Canberra Times, p. 1.

Technorealism. [cited 13/3/1998] URL:
Teicher, Julian. (1996). "Consultation and Participation in the Australian Public Sector" pp. 115-129 in Managing Together - Consultation and Participation in the Workplace, Edward M. Davis, & Russell D. Lansbury (editors), Longman: Sydney.

Thurow, Lester. (1996). The Future of Capitalism. Allen and Unwin: Sydney.

Tisdell, Clem. (1996). "Diversity and Economic Efficiency:Competition and Evolutionary Technology Policy". STEP (Science, Technology and Socio-Economics Progress Conference). University of Queensland, Brisbane.

Towards a Best Practice Australian Public Service. [cited 9/11/96] URL:

Towards an Australian Strategy for the Information Economy. Ministerial Council for the Information Economy. [cited 12/9/98] URL:

Tuller, Charlie, & Oblinger, Diana. (Winter 1997). "Information Technology as a Transformation Agent". Cause/Effect, 33, 38-45. [cited 22/4/98] URL:

Turkle, Sherry. (1997). Life on the Screen - Identity in the Age of the Internet. Touchstone: New York.

Uhr, John. (1988). New Strategies for Executive Development -The Management of Public Accountability. Canberra Series in Administrative Studies Occasional Paper No 4.

Uhr, John. (1998). Deliberative Democracy in Australia - The Changing Place of Parliament. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge and Melbourne.

UK Citizens Online Democracy. [cited 15/3/1997] URL:

Vines, Stephen. (20/3/1998). "Much for the Little People to be Happy About". The Canberra Times, p. 9.

Waldrop, M. Mitchell. (1994). Complexity - The Emerging Science at the Edge of Order and Chaos. Penguin: London.

Wallis, Joe. (1997). "Conspiracy and The Policy Process: A Case Study of the New Zealand Experiment". Journal of Public Policy, 17(1), 1-29.

Wang, Shouhong. (1997). "Impact of Information Technology on Organizations". Human Systems Management, 16, 83-90.

Warne, Leoni. (1995). "Organisational Power and Information System Development: Findings from a Case Study of a large Public Sector Project". ACIS 95. 1995.

Warneminde, Richard. (1992). "Integrating Information Technology with Corporate Strategy" pp. 101-115 Managing Information Technology's Organisational Impact, II, Proceedings of the IFIP TC9 Conference on Managing Information Technology's Organisational Impact, II
Adelaide, Australia, 7-8 October 1991. Roger Clarke, & Julie Cameron (editors), Elsevier/North Holland: Amsterdam.

Ways of Working - Summary. (1995). Future of Finance Group. Department of Finance, Canberra.

Welcome to the MAI-Not! Project. [cited 9/1/98] URL:

Weller, Patrick, Foster, John, & David, Glyn eds. (1993). Reforming the Public Service - Lessons from Recent Experience. MacMillan Education Australia: Nathan, Queensland.

Williams, Trevor. (1991). "Socio-technical Systems in the Information Technology Age" pp. 1-25 Information Technology in Australia - Transforming Organisational Structure and Culture, Stan Aungles (editor), University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

Williams, Trevor. (1991a). "Organisational Choice and Information Technology in the Public Sector" pp. 183-194 Information Technology in Australia - Transforming Organisational Structure and Culture, Stan Aungles (editor), University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

Williams, Trevor. (1995). "The Role of Information Technology in Regulatory Reform: The Case of ELS". Australian Journal of Public Administration, 54(2), 219-229.

Wolcott, Harry F. (1990). Writing Up Qualitative Research. Sage: London.

Worthington, Paul. (1996). "Investigation of World Wide Web Use by Government Agencies in Western Australia". Proceedings of AUSWEB96, the Second Australian World Wide Web Conference. Jupiter's casino, Gold Coast, Queensland. July 7-9.

Wright, Lincoln. (20/1/99). "Dossiers' on $1b PS Buyers". The Canberra Times, p. 1.

Wright, Tony. (1996). "Reinventing Democracy?" pp. 7-19 in Reinventing Democracy, Blackwell Publishers. Paul Hirst/Sunil Khilnani (editors), The Political Quarterly Publishing Co: Oxford and Cambridge.

Wynne, Brian. (1996). "May the Sheep Safely Graze? A Reflexive View of the Expert-Lay Knowledge Divide" pp. 44-83 in Risk, Environment and Modernity - Towards a New Ecology, Scott Lash, Bronislaw Szerszynski, & Brian Wynne (editors), Sage: London.

Yin, Robert T. (1989). Case Study Research - Design and Methods. Sage: London.

Zifcak, Spencer. (1994). The New Managerialism: Administrative Reform in Whitehall and Canberra. Open University Press: Buckingham and Philadelphia.

Zimmerman, Andrew D. (1995). "Toward a More Democratic Ethic of Technological Governance". Science, Technology and Human Values , 20(1), 86-107.

Zuboff, Shoshana. (1988). In the Age of the Smart Machine - The Future of Work and Power. Heinemann Professional Publishing: Oxford.